UKAN Policies & Publications


Leveraging Aid – A literature review of the additionality of using of ODA to leverage private finance

UKAN Literature Review, April 2015

There is a great deal of focus at the moment – political, technical and from a variety of development actors – on the potential for ODA to be used to catalyse substantial and additional resources for development.  Additionality is thus a crucial criteria and determinant in projects using ODA to leverage private investments. Unless it can be proven that ODA funds are necessary to a) make the project happen and/or b) increase the development impact of projects, then they are simply displacing other actors who could provide finance and unnecessarily subsidizing private sector investments.

This report also looks into two other questions where additionality has a direct and significant impact. It first analyses the relationship between additionality and leverage ratios and concludes that leverage ratios only make sense as long as additionality can be demonstrated. This conclusion also invalidates the use of leverage ratios as a proxy to measure financial additionality. Secondly, the report looks at the relationship between additionality and development effectiveness principles. It concludes that additionality should play a significant role in assessing whether leveraging projects supported with ODA funds fulfil these principles. Depending on the specific principle, additionality should be seen as either a performance indicator or a necessary condition for compliance. Read the full report here.

The future of UK aid – should the UK give aid as loans?

UKAN-Bond-Jubilee Debt Campaign Paper, December 2013

This paper presents evidence-based arguments both in favour and against the UK increasing the amount of UK aid currently provided as ODA loans.  It concludes that there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that a new UK development bank or loan facility would provide true development additionality or that it would be an effective modality to deliver UK aid.

Where now for development effectiveness?

UKAN-Bond Paper, October 2013

This paper presents the vision of UK NGOs for the GPEDC Steering Committee’s meeting in October 2013. It provides an overview of the current challenges the progress of the Busan principles and provides recommendations for the Steering Committee and donor countries.

Country Ownership – the only way forward for development cooperation

UKAN-Bond Brief, July 2013

This paper outlines the steps the donor community has to take to enhance the appeal of country ownership across the development sector. It concludes with recommendations for how realising genuine country ownership.

UK Aid Transparency Report Card 2012

Publish What You Fund in partnership with the UK Aid Network, December 2012

The UK plays a vital role in championing aid transparency internationally, and was among the donors that established the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) in 2008 to provide a global standard for publishing aid information.  This report draws on the findings of the 2012 Aid Transparency Index to explore the state of the UK’s aid transparency across four UK government departments and the UK’s development finance institution, CDC, and asks how embedded the transparency agenda is beyond DFID.

Reaching 0.7% – Five reasons to deliver and legislate on international aid

UKAN-Bond Brief, June 2012

This brief outlines the reasons why the UK government should deliver and legislate on the commitment to reach and maintain the international aid target of 0.7% GNI from 2013.

Monitoring Implementation of the Busan Partnership Agreement; Why “Global Light” and “Country-Focused” Must Work Together Effectively  

Matthew Martin, Richard Watts and Gideon Rabinowitz, April 2012

This report recommends the best approaches that the post-Busan monitoring negotiations should follow to implement the agreements made in Busan and achieve successful national-level mutual accountability. The report presents survey findings, evidence from partner countries’ progress  on inclusive mutual accountability and case studies from Ghana, Mozambique and Rwanda.

Shaping the Future of Aid: UK NGO Position Paper for the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness

UKAN/Bond Position Paper, September 2011

The paper outlines the joint UK NGO vision for the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness and provides an overview of the on-going efforts of UK NGOs to prove and improve their own effectiveness and transparency.

How the Paris and Accra reforms contributed to development results and how HLF4 can promote further progress

UKAN Evidence Paper August 2011

This Evidence Paper from the UK Aid Network (UKAN) presents evidence on what impacts the Paris and Accra aid reforms have had in improving development results from aid. The evidence points towards a number of key conclusions which should inform the aid effectiveness agenda.

UK Aid Network response to the UK government’s “2009 How-to-Note on Implementing the UK’s Conditionality Policy

July 2009

This Paper outlines UKAN’s views on the 2009 conditionality How-to-Note. UKAN believes the Note includes some new quite progressive elements, but leaves many existing ambiguities un-clarified and seems to take a step backwards on a critical issue, that of economic conditions.

Aid Stories

In 2009 UKAN compiled a “Guide to Talking Up Aid”, which presents case studies of various types of successful aid across different sectors and types of interventions, and also includes a section with suggested responses to critiques of aid that are frequently raised.

UKAN Positive Statement on Aid

This paper presents an overview of the development achievements of aid and the key approaches that are required to ensure that aid is focussed on poverty reduction, supports country-led development efforts and is delivered effectively and efficiently.

UKAN response to the Green Paper on Development

This paper presents UKAN’s formal responses to the Conservative Party’s 2009 Green Paper on International Development “One World Conservatism”

UKAN comments on DFID conditionality guidelines

July 2006

This document lays out some concerns by the above member agencies with the guidelines contained in DFID’s How to note, “Implementing DFID’s conditionality policy”, and some suggestions to help refine and strengthen them.


UKAN Policy Position Papers: 

UKAN Policy Paper 1. Improving the Impact of the UK’s Aid – This paper looks at the challenges for improving the impact of the UK’s aid on development, including implementing the Paris Declaration and Accra aid effectiveness reforms, improving results monitoring and evaluation and the opportunities and limitations of using performance based approaches for delivering aid.

UKAN Policy Paper 2. Budget Support and Country-led Aid – This paper presents the case for delivering increased levels of aid through program approaches and budget support, evidence of the development benefits of such aid modalities and analysis of the UK’s use of them, including challenges around risk, accountability and impact.

UKAN Policy Paper 3. Aid Conflict and Development – This paper explores the challenges facing the UK in delivering increased aid to conflict affected and fragile states in support of development, including identifying legitimate development spending objectives, deciding suitable allocations across countries, ensuring aid is managed by suitable UK Government Ministries and ensuring UK national interests not have an overriding influence over UK aid policies in these countries.

UKAN Policy Paper 4. International Aid Effectiveness Agenda – This paper presents a background to the Paris Declaration and Accra aid effectiveness reforms, evidence for their development impacts, analysis of the UK’s performance in implementing these reforms and principles and objectives that should inform a successor to the Paris Declaration that will be critical to be agreed in 2011.

UKAN Policy Paper 5. Multilateral Aid Effectiveness – This paper presents analysis of critical role of multilateral development agencies in making the aid system more effective and an agenda for reforming these institutions in the coming years in order to ensure they deliver aid more effectively and better support ownership, accountability and poverty reduction.